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Flexor Hallucis Longus Anatomy: Origin, Insertion, Action

Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle Anatomy Study

Flexor Hallucis Longus Anatomy

Origin: Distal two-thirds of the posterior surfaces of the fibula, the adjacent interosseus membrane, the posterior intermuscular septum, and the lateral part of the fascia covering tibialis posterior
Insertion: Plantar aspect of the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe after traveling between the two sesamoids associated with the first metatarsal head.
Action: Flexion of the great toe, assists with plantarflexion of the foot at the ankle.
Innervation: Tibial nerve (L5 – S1-2 )
Blood Supply: Branches from the posterior tibial artery

Synergist: Flexor digitorum longus, Peroneus longus, Peroneus brevis,  Tibialis posterior, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris

Antagonist: Extensor hallucis longus, Extensor digitorum longus, Tibialis anterior, Peroneus tertius

For pain and symptom information see: Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle Pain and Symptoms



Primary Actions of the Flexor Hallucis Longus

1. Flexion of the great toe at the interphalangeal joint

    • Agonists: None
    • Antagonists: Extensor Hallucis Longus

2. Flexion of the great toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint

    • Agonists: Flexor Hallucis Brevis
    • Antagonists: Extensor Hallucis Longus, Extensor Hallucis Brevis

Secondary Actions of the Flexor Hallucis Longus:

1. Assists with plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle

    • Agonists: Gastrocnemius, Soleus
    • Antagonists: Tibialis Anterior


Recommended Anatomy Books

The Anatomy Coloring Book is one of the best study and reference books for beginning anatomy students. The diagrams are clearly labeled and allow you to see the relationship and placement of the various structures of the body. You will also be surprised how the act of coloring will help with recall. But this is not just a beginners book, it is also great for practitioners and therapists to have on hand to use with clients and patients to use as a visual reference.

Basic Clinical Massage Therapy


Out of the scores of books in my office Basic Clinical Massage Therapy is by far the most referenced book in my library. The musculoskeletal system is overlaid on human models allowing you to learn the precise location, origin and insertions of each muscle. The models are pictured in various poses throughout the book which also helps you visualize muscles in motion and their actions relationship with the skeletal structure and other muscles. Though it is written for massage therapists, it is an excellent book for anyone who wants to learn about the muscular system. MT’s will benefit from recommended treatments for each muscle.




The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook – Claire Davies, Amber Davies, and David G. Simons

Basic Clinical Massage Therapy: Integrating Anatomy and Treatment – James H. Clay and David M. Pounds

Trigger Point Therapy for Myofascial Pain – Donna Finando and Steven Finando

Massage Therapy Principles and Practice – Susan Salvo

Theory & Practice of Therapeutic Massage – Mark Beck


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