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Soleus Anatomy: Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Soleus Anatomy Study: Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation, and Blood Supply

Soleus Anatomy
Origin: Posterior surface of the head and proximal quarter of the shaft of the fibula, spanning over to the soleal line and the middle third of the medial border of the tibia, and a fibrous band, which arches over the popliteal vessels and tibial nerve, between the tibia and fibula
Insertion: Joins with the tendon of the gastrocnemius to form the tendo calcaneus to attach to the middle of three facets on the posterior surface of the calcaneus. The muscle is covered proximally by gastrocnemius and is accessible on both sides.
Actions: Plantarflexion of the foot at the ankle
Innervation: Tibial nerve (S1 – 2 )
Blood Supply: Branches from the popliteal and posterior tibial arteries.

Synergist: Gastrocnemius, Tibialis posterior, Peroneus longus, Peroneus brevis
Antagonist: Tibialis anterior, Extensor digitorum longus, Peroneus tertius

For pain and symptom information see: Soleus Muscle Pain and Symptoms


Primary Actions of the Soleus:

1. Plantarflexion of the foot at the ankle

    • Agonists: Gastrocnemius
    • Antagonists: Tibialis Anterior

Recommended Human Anatomy Books


The Anatomy Coloring Book is one of the best study and reference books for beginning anatomy students. The diagrams are clearly labeled and allow you to see the relationship and placement of the various structures of the body. You will also be surprised how the act of coloring will help with recall. But this is not just a beginners book, it is also great for practitioners and therapists to have on hand to use with clients and patients to use as a visual reference.



Out of the scores of books in my office Basic Clinical Massage Therapy is by far the most referenced book in my library. The musculoskeletal system is overlaid on human models allowing you to learn the precise location, origin and insertions of each muscle. The models are pictured in various poses throughout the book which also helps you visualize muscles in motion and their actions relationship with the skeletal structure and other muscles. Though it is written for massage therapists, it is an excellent book for anyone who wants to learn about the muscular system. MT’s will benefit from recommended treatments for each muscle.


The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook – Claire Davies, Amber Davies, and David G. Simons

Basic Clinical Massage Therapy: Integrating Anatomy and Treatment – James H. Clay and David M. Pounds

Trigger Point Therapy for Myofascial Pain – Donna Finando and Steven Finando

Massage Therapy Principles and Practice – Susan Salvo

Theory & Practice of Therapeutic Massage – Mark Beck


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