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Iliopsoas Anatomy: Origins, Insertions, Actions, Innervations

(Last Updated On: August 10, 2018)
Iliopsoas Muscles Origin, Insertion, Actions, Innervation

Muscle Anatomy of the Iliopsoas Muscles

The ilopsoas muscles are grouped together because of the common attachment at the lessor trochanter of the femur. The three muscles work together and act as the strongest hip flexor.

Iliacus Muscle Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Muscle Anatomy of the Iliacus Muscles

Origin: Superior two-thirds of the internal surface of the iliac fossa, the inner lip of the iliac crest, the ventral surface of the sacroiliac and iliolumbar ligaments, and the upper surface of the lateral part of the sacrum
Insertion: The lesser trochanter of the femur after being joined by the tendon of psoas major
Actions: Flexion of thigh at hip, assists in extension of the lumbar spine
Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2,L 3)
Blood Supply: Iliolumber artery from internal iliac artery

Muscle Anatomy: Iliacus Actions

Primary Actions of the Iliacus Muscle

1.  Flexion of thigh at the hip

  Agonists:

  • Psoas Major

  Antagonists:

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Biceps Femoris (long head)
  • Adductor magnus (posterior part)

Note: Pectineus, rectus femoris, sartorius, and psoas minor assist with flexion of the thigh at the hip.

Psoas Major Muscle Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Muscle Anatomy of the Psoas Major Muscle

Origin: Anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and transverse processes of T12-L5 vertebrae
Insertion: The lesser trochanter of the femur after being joined by the tendon of the iliacus
Actions: Flexion of thigh at hip, assists in extension of the lumbar spine
Innervation: Lumbar plexus (L2, L3,  L4)
Blood Supply: Iliolumber artery from internal iliac artery

Muscle Anatomy: Psoas Major Actions

Primary Actions of the Psoas Major Muscle

1.  Flexion of thigh at the hip

  Agonists:

  • Iliacus

  Antagonists:

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Biceps Femoris (long head)
  • Adductor magnus (posterior part)

Note: Pectineus, rectus femoris, sartorius, and psoas minor assist with flexion of the thigh at the hip.

Secondary Actions of the Psoas Major Muscle

1.  Assists with extension of the lumbar spine

  Agonists:

  • Iliocostalis lumborum
  • Longissimus thoracis

  Antagonists:

  • Rectus Abdominis

Note: Interspinalis also assist with extension of the lumbar spine

Psoas Minor Muscle Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Muscle Anatomy of the Psoas Minor Muscle

Origin: Bodies of T12 and L1 and intervening intervertebral discs
Insertion: Attaches to the pectineal line, the iliopectineal eminence and the iliac fascia
Actions: Flexion of thigh at hip
Innervation: Ventral primary rami of L1
Blood Supply: Iliolumber artery from internal iliac artery

Muscle Anatomy: Psoas Minor Actions

Primary Actions of the Psoas Minor Muscle

Because of its position and size the psoas minor is not a prime mover

Secondary Actions of the Psoas Minor Muscle

1.  Assists with flexion of the thigh at the hip

  Agonists:

  • Psoas Major
  • Iliacus

  Antagonists:

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Biceps Femoris (long head)
  • Adductor magnus (posterior part)

Note: Pectineus, rectus femoris, sartorius, and psoas minor assist with flexion of the thigh at the hip.

For iliopsoas pain and symptoms information see:

Iliopsoas Muscles: Low Back, Abdomen, Groin, Pelvic, Upper Leg Pain

Recommended Anatomy Books:

Anatomy Coloring Book

The Anatomy Coloring Book is one of the best study and reference books for beginning anatomy students. The diagrams are clearly labeled and allow you to see the relationship and placement of the various structures of the body. You will also be surprised how the act of coloring will help with recall. But this is not just a beginners book, it is also great for practitioners and therapists to have on hand to use with clients and patients to use as a visual reference.

Human Muscle Anatomy

The Trail Guide To The Body is another excellent book to help you learn the musculature of the human body. Though the book is geared toward massage therapists and physical therapist assistants, the book with its illustrations and text helps anyone gain a thorough understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and movement. I highly recommend this book for anyone studying anatomy and believe that MTs, PTAs, and teachers of body movements should have this book in their possession. I also highly recommend this book for the lay person who wants to gain understanding of the muscle, skeletal system and how our bodies move. This book will not disappoint!

Basic Clinical Massage Therapy

Out of the scores of books in my office Basic Clinical Massage Therapy is by far the most referenced book in my library. The musculoskeletal system is overlaid on human models allowing you to learn the precise location, origin and insertions of each muscle. The models are pictured in various poses throughout the book which also helps you visualize muscles in motion and their actions relationship with the skeletal structure and other muscles. Though it is written for massage therapists, it is an excellent book for anyone who wants to learn about the muscular system. MT's will benefit from recommended treatments for each muscle.

Muscle Anatomy Flashcards

Musculoskeletal Anatomy Flashcards Are you a student or professional therapist who needs to brush up on the musculoskeletal system? Dr. Joseph E. Muscolino DC has developed a comprehensive set of flashcards that will help develop a mind's picture of exactly where the muscles lie under the skin. A highly recommended study aid for students. Great for non students who want an easy comprehensive anatomy guide.

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