Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Anatomy

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

Origin:  Ulnar head: medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon, medial border of the base of the coronoid process of the ulna, and ulnar collateral ligament
Radial head: oblique line of the radius along its supero-anterior border
Insertion:  Volar surface of the base of each middle phalanx of the four digits
Actions: Flexion of the digits, Flexion of the wrist
Innervation: Median nerve (C7, C8, T1)
Blood Supply: Muscular branches from the ulnar and radial arteries

Primary Actions of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis:

1. Flexion of the digits at the proximal interphalangeal joints

  • Agonists: Flexor Digitorum Profundus
  • Antagonists:  Lumbricals, Dorsal Interossei, Palmar Interossei, Extensor Digitorum, Extensor Indicis, Extensor Digiti Minimi

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Secondary Actions of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis:

2. Assists with flexion of the digits at the metacarpophalangeal joints

  • Agonists: Dorsal Interossei, Palmar Interossei, Lumbricals, Flexor Digitorum Profundus, Flexor Digiti Minimi
  • Antagonists: Extensor Digitorum, Extensor Indicis, Extensor Digiti Minimi

3. Assists with flexion of the wrist

  • Agonists: Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
  • Antagonists: Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus, Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris