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(Last Updated On: March 2, 2019)

Biceps Femoris: Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Long Head of the Biceps Femoris

Origin: Upper and inner surface of the posterior side of the ischial tuberosity, conjoined with semitendinosus
Insertion: The styloid process of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia
Actions: Flexion of the leg at the knee, external rotation of the knee, extension of the thigh at the hip
Innervation: Tibial portion of the sciatic nerve (L5,S1)
Blood Supply: Branches from the internal iliac, popliteal and profunda femoris arteries

Biceps Femoris origin, insertion, actions, innervation

Long Head of the Biceps Femoris Actions With Agonists and Antagonists

Primary Actions of the Long Head of the Biceps Femoris

1. Flexion of the leg at the knee

  Agonists:

  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

  Antagonists:

  • Vastus lateralis
  • Vastus medialis
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Rectus femoris

2. External rotation of the knee

  Agonists:

  • Biceps femoris (short head)

  Antagonists:

  • Popliteus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

3. Extension of the thigh at the hip

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Adductor magnus (posterior fibers)

  Antagonists:

  • Psoas Major
  • Iliacus

Short Head of the Biceps Femoris

Origin: Middle third of the linea aspera, lateral to the supracondylar ridge of the femur
Insertion: The styloid process of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia
Actions: Flexion of the leg at the knee, external rotation of the knee
Innervation: Common peroneal portion of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1)
Blood Supply: Branches from the internal iliac, popliteal and profunda femoris arteries

Primary Actions of the Short Head of the Biceps Femoris

1. Flexion of the leg at the knee

  Agonists:

  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

  Antagonists:

  • Vastus lateralis
  • Vastus medialis
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Rectus femoris

Gracilis, sartorius, popliteus, gastrocnemius, and plantaris assist with flexion of the knee.

2. External rotation of the knee

  Agonists:

  • Biceps femoris (short head)

  Antagonists:

  • Popliteus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

For more information see:  Biceps Femoris Pain

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Human Muscle Anatomy

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Basic Clinical Massage Therapy

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Muscle Anatomy Flashcards

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