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Biceps Femoris Anatomy: Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

(Last Updated On: August 10, 2018)
Biceps Femoris origin, insertion, actions, innervation

Muscle Anatomy of the Biceps Femoris

Long Head of Biceps Femoris

Origin: Upper and inner surface of the posterior side of the ischial tuberosity, conjoined with semitendinosus
Insertion: The styloid process of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia
Actions: Flexes knee joint, laterally rotates knee joint, extends hip joint
Innervation: Tibial portion of the sciatic nerve (L5,S1)
Blood Supply: Branches from the internal iliac, popliteal and profunda femoris arteries

Muscle Anatomy: Biceps Femoris Actions

Primary Actions of the Long Head of the Biceps Femoris

1. Flexion of the leg at the knee

  Agonists:

  •  Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

  Antagonists:

  • Vastus Lateralis
  • Vastus Medialis
  • Vastus Intermedius
  • Rectus Femoris

2. External rotation of the  knee

  Agonists:

  • Biceps Femoris (short head)

  Antagonists:

  • Popliteus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

3. Extension of the thigh at the hip

  Agonists: 

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Adductor Magnus (posterior fibers)

  Antagonists:

  • Psoas Major
  • Iliacus

Short Head of Biceps Femoris:

Origin: Middle third of the linea aspera, lateral to the supracondylar ridge of the femur.
Insertion:  The styloid process of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia
Action:  Flexes knee joint, laterally rotates knee joint
Innervation: Common peroneal portion of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1)
Blood Supply: Branches from the internal iliac, popliteal and profunda femoris artery.

Primary Actions of the Short Head of the Biceps Femoris:

1. Flexion of the leg at the knee

  Agonists:

  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

  Antagonists:

  • Vastus Lateralis
  • Vastus Medialis
  • Vastus Intermedius
  • Rectus Femoris

2. External rotation of the  knee

  Agonists:

  • Biceps Femoris (short head)

  Antagonists:

  • Popliteus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

2. Extension of the thigh at the hip

  Agonists:

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Adductor Magnus (posterior fibers)

  Antagonists:

  • Psoas Major
  • Iliacus

Information about cause and effect of Biceps Femoris pain:

Biceps Femoris Knee and Thigh Pain

Recommended Anatomy Books:

Anatomy Coloring Book

The Anatomy Coloring Book is one of the best study and reference books for beginning anatomy students. The diagrams are clearly labeled and allow you to see the relationship and placement of the various structures of the body. You will also be surprised how the act of coloring will help with recall. But this is not just a beginners book, it is also great for practitioners and therapists to have on hand to use with clients and patients to use as a visual reference.

Human Muscle Anatomy

The Trail Guide To The Body is another excellent book to help you learn the musculature of the human body. Though the book is geared toward massage therapists and physical therapist assistants, the book with its illustrations and text helps anyone gain a thorough understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and movement. I highly recommend this book for anyone studying anatomy and believe that MTs, PTAs, and teachers of body movements should have this book in their possession. I also highly recommend this book for the lay person who wants to gain understanding of the muscle, skeletal system and how our bodies move. This book will not disappoint!

Basic Clinical Massage Therapy

Out of the scores of books in my office Basic Clinical Massage Therapy is by far the most referenced book in my library. The musculoskeletal system is overlaid on human models allowing you to learn the precise location, origin and insertions of each muscle. The models are pictured in various poses throughout the book which also helps you visualize muscles in motion and their actions relationship with the skeletal structure and other muscles. Though it is written for massage therapists, it is an excellent book for anyone who wants to learn about the muscular system. MT's will benefit from recommended treatments for each muscle.

Muscle Anatomy Flashcards

Musculoskeletal Anatomy Flashcards Are you a student or professional therapist who needs to brush up on the musculoskeletal system? Dr. Joseph E. Muscolino DC has developed a comprehensive set of flashcards that will help develop a mind's picture of exactly where the muscles lie under the skin. A highly recommended study aid for students. Great for non students who want an easy comprehensive anatomy guide.

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