Gluteus Maximus Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Muscle Anatomy of the Gluteus Maximus



  • Posterior iliac crest
  • Posterolateral Sacrum
  • Coccyx
  • Sacrotuberous ligament


  • Gluteal tuberosity
  • IT band


  • Extends the thigh at the hip
  • Laterally rotates thigh at the hip
  • Abduction of the thigh at the hip

Innervation: Nerve to piriformis

Blood Supply: Inferior gluteal artery


Gluteus Maximus Muscle Actions With Agonists and Antagonists

Primary Actions of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle

1. Extension of thigh at the hip


  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Biceps femoris (long head)
  • Adductor Magnus (posterior fiber)


  • Psoas major
  • Iliacus

2. Abduction of thigh at the hip


  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus


  • Adductor longus
  • Adductor brevis
  • Adductor magnus (anterior part)

Lateral rotation of the thigh at the hip


  • Obturator internus
  • Obturator externus
  • Gemellus superior
  • Gemellus inferior
  • Quadratus femoris


  • Tensor fasciae latae
  • Gluteus minimus (anterior fibers)
  • Gluteus medius (anterior fibers)

Secondary Actions of the Gluteus Maximus:

1. Helps to stabilize the knee in extension of the thigh at the hip via the iliotibial band

Information about the cause and effect of gluteus maximus pain:

Gluteus Maximus Muscle: Low Back, Hip, Tailbone, Buttock Pain


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Grammarly Writing Support Recommended Beginner Anatomy Books
The Anatomy Coloring Book is one of the best study and reference books for beginning anatomy students. The diagrams are clearly labeled and allow you to see the relationship and placement of the various structures of the body.

The Trail Guide To The Body is another excellent book to help you learn the musculature of the human body. Though the book is geared toward massage therapists and physical therapist assistants, the book with its illustrations and text helps anyone gain a thorough understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and movement. I highly recommend this book for anyone studying anatomy.

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