Gluteus Maximus Muscle Anatomy

Gluteus Maximus Muscle

Origin: Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur and iliotibial tract
Actions: Extension of the thigh at the hip, Abduction of the thigh at the hip
Innervation: Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Blood Supply: Inferior gluteal artery from the internal iliac artery

Primary Actions of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle

1. Extension of the thigh at the hip

Agonists:

  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Biceps femoris (long head)
  • Adductor Magnus (posterior fiber)

Antagonists:

  • Psoas major
  • Iliacus

2. Abduction of the thigh at the hip

  Agonists:

  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus

  Antagonists:

  • Adductor longus
  • Adductor brevis
  • Adductor magnus (anterior part)

Tensor fasciae latae and sartorius assist with abduction of the thigh at the hip.

Secondary Actions of the Gluteus Maximus:

1. Assists with external rotation of the thigh at the hip
Agonists:

  • Obturator internus
  • Obturator externus
  • Gemellus superior
  • Gemellus inferior
  • Quadratus femoris

Antagonists:

  • Tensor fasciae latae
  • Gluteus minimus (anterior fibers)
  • Gluteus medius (anterior fibers)

Gluteus maximus, piriformis and sartorius assists with external rotation of the thigh at the hip when the hip.
2. Helps to stabilize the knee in extension of the thigh at the hip via the iliotibial band

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